The scalp: how it works and how to take care of it

The key to consistently beautiful and healthy hair lies in taking care of your scalp, where it resides and draws nourishment. In this article we are going to find out how the scalp works, its various layers and good practices for keeping it healthy.

What the scalp looks like

The scalp is the area that, through its invaginations, gives home to the hair follicles in charge of hair growth and is distinguished from the rest of the skin by a much more massive presence of hair follicles: 200-300 per cm2 as opposed to the 10-15 we normally find in an arm or other parts of the body.

Like the rest of the skin, the scalp consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.


The outermost layer where "dead" cells are present and are called corneocytes. This layer has shield action toward the outside.

The middle part, where the cells are alive and possess a nucleus, "keratinocytes." Here we also find some of the most important components: the bulbs from which hair arises, the blood vessels that bring nourishment and oxygen to the hair bulbs, the sebaceous glands lubricate and waterproof the hair, and the sweat glands with outlet to the epidermis, in charge of thermoregulation and of forming with the layer of dead cells the NMF (natural moisturazing factor).

The deepest layer, up to 3.5 cm below the surface, composed of an adipose fascia that serves as an insulating layer and energy reserve.

All these elements work in unison to ensure healthy, natural scalp activity: if this alchemy is lacking, it can generate unbalancing reactions and imperfections such as dandruff, weakening, occasional hair loss, dryness or oily hair.

How the scalp works

The two most important factors in keeping one's scalp healthy are the hydrolipid film and the blood and lymphatic microcirculation, let's see what they consist of:

The sebum produced in the dermis travels up to the epidermis, where it goes to create the hydrolipid film, a thin fatty surface layer composed of sebum, sweat, water, mineral salts, cellular debris (corneocytes) and bacterial flora (microbes, bacteria...). All together these make up the skin microbiota, a true living organism with which we live in symbiosis and which takes care of protecting the outermost layer of our entire body.

Every day our hydrolipid film is attacked by agents such as cold, heat, wind, sun, UV rays, smog, heavy metals in the air, excess cellular debris, and residues from styling products. The moment of washing ensures a cyclic turnover that keeps it healthy, but if we use products that are unsuitable or not compatible with our skin, the risk is that this will be damaged, creating an imbalance that can lead to the scalp problems we know.

the blood microcirculation is composed of arterial and venous vessels serves to bring oxygen, energy and nourishment to the bulbs and eliminate CO2 produced and waste substances.

Waste substances are also eliminated through lymphatic microcirculation, however, not all of the head has it; the aponeurotic galea area does not have this drainage system. Therefore, it is essential to perform the correct and regular scalp massage to allow proper lymphatic and blood activation.


How to take care of the scalp

Having seen how complex and delicate this mechanism is, let's find out what are good habits to maintain its balance:

  • A head massage helps to reactivate microcirculation; however, be careful not to scratch or friction too much in washing as this may damage the hydrolipid film.
  • When we wash our hair, it is essential to use gentle products, gentle surfactants SLES & SLS FREE, making sure to emulsify the shampoo on the scalp.
  • After washing, it is essential that rinsing is complete and thorough and drying is done without excessive heat or mechanical stress.
  • The use of products specific to one's scalp and length needs is critical to target action.
  • To understand what one's needs REALLY are, it is important to take advantage of a thorough trichological consultation to understand how to intervene. This can be done with a Microcamera for skin analysis in a specialized salon or trichological center.

prime napura line

The Benefits of Dead Sea Salts

A hectic lifestyle, smog and pollution, products that alter the skin microbiota, are all factors that can lead to weakened hair and premature hair loss.

The 4 prime line is designed to compensate for this deficiency, featuring specific essential oils to prevent hair weakening and keep the scalp hydrated thanks to the action of Dead Sea Salts.

In fact, the trace elements present act thanks to the high % of Magnesium not only on the scalp but also on the structure of the hair itself, going on to strengthen it.

Start the Routine with S4, a shampoo that gently cleanses. Continue by applying T4 Prime post to the scalp along with the all-important massage. For the most critical areas we recommend Z4 post synergistic treatment, which is practical and convenient to carry with you at all times.

Try the whole 4 Prime line on our online shop:

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